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A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in mammals.

 

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Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.