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The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

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Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Condensation

Liquefaction of vapor.