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The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

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Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.