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The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

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An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.


The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Pineapple literally "erodes" the tongue

Everyone who has ever tried fresh pineapple knows that if you eat too much, your lips and tongue hurt for a while. This is because the pineapple contains an enzyme called bromelain. This enzyme literally "erodes" the tongue.

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or decrease with an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.