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The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

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xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Three ways to make patina at home

The first way is ammonia patination. To do this, take a plastic container. Put a couple of paper or ordinary towels at the bottom. Moisten them with ammonia. Then sprinkle with large table salt.

Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.