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The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

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Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Electrolysis

Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Coordination Compound or Complex

A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.