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The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

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Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.


The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.



An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.


Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.