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The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

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Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Autoionization

An ionization reaction between identical molecules.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.