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Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

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  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.



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Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.

 

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

Density

Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.