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Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

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S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.


The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.