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Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

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Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.