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The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

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Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point


Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.



Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.


Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.