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The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

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Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Geometrical Isomers

Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Moderator

A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Derivative

A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.