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The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

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Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Ether

Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Coke

An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.