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Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Cathode Ray Tube

Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure, with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode, produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.