The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Diamonds Are Forever
Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support
Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.
A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.
Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.
Standard Electrode Potential
By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.
A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.
Crystal Field Theory
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.
A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.
Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.
The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.
CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.
The dispersing medium of a solution.
A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.
Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.
Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.
In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.
van der Waals' Equation
An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.
A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.
Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.
Different substances that have the same formula.