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The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

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Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Salt and its use in everyday life

Cooking salt is a product that is available in every kitchen, and it’s not as simple as it seems. The history of this product shows that it was valued like gold.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Moderator

A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.