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An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

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Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Percent Purity

The percent of a specified compound or element in an impure sample.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

PseudobinaryIonic Compounds

Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.