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An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

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Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Octahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

DP number

The degree of polymerization, the average number of monomer units per polymer unit.