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An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

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Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Mechanism

The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.