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Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

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Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.