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Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

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Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.