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Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

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Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Density

Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.