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Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

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Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Ionic Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.