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Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

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Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Debye

The unit used to express dipole moments.