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Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

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Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Double Salt

Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts.

 

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.