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Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

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  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

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Chemindustry.com - Includes chemicals, chemical companies, engineering, and process equipment. Search tool for products, services, and information.
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General Chemistry Online - Rich resource for students and teachers of introductory chemistry. Includes interactive course guides and tutorials, an exam survival guide, reference tables, self-grading quizzes and exams, a searchable glossary, a question and answer board, answers to over 300 frequently asked questions, and a chemical trivia quiz.
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Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.