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A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

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Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.