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A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

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Electron Affinity

The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge, has a negative value if energy is released.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Osmotic Pressure

The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a semipermable membrane by osmosis.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.