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Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

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Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.