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Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

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Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Cyclotron

A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral path.