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Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

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Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.