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Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

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Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.