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The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

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Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.