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Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...



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Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.

 

Band

A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.