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The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

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Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Solubility Product Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a slightly soluble compound.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Accuracy

How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Dermal toxicity

Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.