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The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

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Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.