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The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

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Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Radiation

High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.