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Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.

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Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Alums

Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+(SO4)2.12H2).

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.