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An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

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Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Periodicity

Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).

xylene

Any of three oily, colorless, water-insoluble, flammable, toxic, isomeric liquids, C8H10, of the benzene series, obtained mostly from coal tar: used chiefly in the manufacture of dyes.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.