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An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

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Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.


Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Nodal Plane

A region in which the probability of finding an electron is zero.


Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.