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An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

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Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Half-Life

The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.