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Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

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Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Molarity

Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery)

A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, and the electrolyte is basic.

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Eluant or eluent

The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid chromatography.

 

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.