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Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

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Handmade crystal glass as a work of art

In order for the colored crystal to open in all its beauty and sparkle with every face natural light is required. Handmade crystal glass has specific tactile and aesthetic properties - it is pleasant to touch, it seems to radiate heat. To appreciate the quality and beauty of such things, of course, it is not enough to look at the picture.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Pairing

A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Buffer Solution

Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.