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Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

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Dumas Method

A method used to determine the molecular weights of volatile liquids.

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

What are Compound Microscopes?

Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses.

The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is the stage, with the illuminator below that.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.