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Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

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Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Octane Number

A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.