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Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

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Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Fatty Acids

An aliphatic acid, many can obtained from animal fats.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.