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Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by other atoms, unshared pair.

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  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...



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Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Homogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Electrochemistry

Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.