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Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

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Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Diamagnetism

Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.