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Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

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Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Buret

A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

How is colored crystal made?

However, not everyone knows that in addition to the traditional transparent, there is still an unusually beautiful and spectacular colored crystal, which is obtained through the addition of various metal oxides into the glass. They give the crystal unusually noble shades of red, purple, blue, green and pink colors.

Band of Stability

Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Heteronuclear

Consisting of different elements.