A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
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Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.
The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.
A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.
Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.
The capacity to do work or transfer heat.
An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.
Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.
Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.
The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.
A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.
Heat of Solution
The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).
The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.
Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.
Activity of a component of ideal mixture
A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.
Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.
It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.
A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)
The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.