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An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

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Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Leclanche Cell

A common type of dry cell.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Effective Collisons

Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction, one in which the molecules collide with proper relative orientations and sufficient energy to react.

 

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.