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Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

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Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Frequency

The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.

Formula

Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.

 

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Standard Electrodes

Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.