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Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.

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Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Saturated Solution

Solution in which no more solute will dissolve.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Paramagnetism

Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.