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A common type of dry cell.

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Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Base

A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Octahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.