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A common type of dry cell.

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Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.

Mole Fraction

The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles in the mixture.

 

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.