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A common type of dry cell.

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Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Phosphorus Oxychloride

Colorless to slightly yellow fuming liquid.

Mol. Wt.: 153.39
M.P.: 20C
B.P.: 105.1C
Density: 1.685 @ 15.5C
Vapor Pressure: 40 mm @ 27.3C
Vapor Density: 5.3
Used as the phosphorus source for phosphorus diffusion.

Linkage Isomers

Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion through different donor atoms.

 

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.