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Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

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Fractional Precipitation

Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Eluate

Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point