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Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

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Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Oxidation

An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.