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Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

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Electrophoresis

A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of migration in an electric field.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.