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Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

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Artificial Transmutation

An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or small nucei.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Physical Change

A change in which a substance changes from one physical state to another but no substances with different composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid.

 

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Fatty Acids

An aliphatic acid, many can obtained from animal fats.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.