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Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

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Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V

Conjugated Double Bonds

Double bonds that are separated from each other by one single bond -C=C-C=C-.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Flash Point

The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized industrial testing methods, therefore the method used must be stated.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.


The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Activity Series

A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing activity.


The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry