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Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

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Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Binary Compound

A compound consisting of two elements, may be ionic or covalent.

Ozone

We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.