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At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

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Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Net Ionic Equation

Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Chemical Change

A change in which one or more new substances are formed.

Saturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.