At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.
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Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Inert s-pair Effect
Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.
A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.
Net Ionic Equation
Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation.
Crystal Field Theory
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.
Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.
The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.
Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.
Solubility Product Principle
The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.
Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.
Reaction of a substance with water.
Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.
The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.
A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.
A change in which one or more new substances are formed.
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons.
Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.
Coefficient of expansion
The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.
A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.
A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.