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A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

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Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.