Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Latest Articles

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

Most Popular

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.


Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.


A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.


A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.