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A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

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Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Noble Gases (Rare Gases)

Elements of the periodic Group 0, also called rare gases, formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn.

Binary Compound

A compound consisting of two elements, may be ionic or covalent.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.