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A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

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Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Aufbau ('building up') Principle

Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in atoms.

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)

The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.  where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2

Magnetic Quantum Number (mc)

Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, f ) in which a electron resides.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Contact Process

Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid are produced from sulfur dioxide.