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A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

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Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Solvation

The process by which solvent molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules.

Integrated Rate Equation

An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Plasma

A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Conformations

Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of rotation about a single bond.