Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.
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The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.
The solid and liquid states.
Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.
Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.
A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.
The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.
Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.
The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.
Specific Rate Constant
An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.
Positively charged or electron-deficient.
Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.
The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.
An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.
Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.
The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.
Low Spin Complex
Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.
Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)
The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom. where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2
An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.