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The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

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Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.

 

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Chemical Change

A change in which one or more new substances are formed.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

yield

The quantity of product formed by the interaction of two or more substances, generally expressed as a percentage of the quantity obtained to that theoretically obtainable.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

Linear Accelerator

A device used for accelerating charged particles along a straight line path.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.