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At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

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Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.


Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.


A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Activation Energy

Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in their ground states to reach the transition state so that a reaction can occur. In other words, activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.


Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.