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A tube having a very small inside diameter.

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  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?



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Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

High Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex, all t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing occurs.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.