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The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

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Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.

 

Nuclide Symbol

Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.

Fossil Fuels

Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.  For further information see Fuel Chemistry

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Turning iron nail into copper nail

This simple chemical experiment shows the so-called process of copper plating of metal products. Copper has the ability to deposit on a metal surface.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.