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The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...



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Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Hydrocarbons

Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Where is ozone used?

Ozone is widely used in various areas of our life. It is used in medicine, in industry, in everyday life.