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The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

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Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Metathesis Reactions

Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new compounds, with no changes in oxidation number. Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange partners.

 

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

A proton donor.

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Viscosity

Resistance offered by the molecules of a liquid to flow is termed as viscosity.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.