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The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

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  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

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    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

yttrium metal

Any of a subgroup of rare-earth elements, of which the cerium and terbium metals comprise the other two subgroups.

Weak Field Ligand

A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge- nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.


Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.