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Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Flux

A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Coefficient of expansion

The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to the original lengthor volume for a unit change in temperature.

Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.