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In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

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Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Percent by Mass

100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.