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The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

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Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)