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The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

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  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.



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Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Condensation

Liquefaction of vapor.

Fluorescence

Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO)

A person or employee who is qualified by training or experience to provide technical guidance in the development and implementations of the provisions of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP)

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.