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The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.

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Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.