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Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

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Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.


Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I


Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.



A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.


Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.


The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.


A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Curie (Ci)

The basic unit used to describe the intensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 billion disintegrations per second or approximately the amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium.