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Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

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Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.


An ionization reaction between identical molecules.


Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Conjugate Acid-base Pair

In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product that differ by a proton, H+.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.


Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.