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Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

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Varieties of garnet minerals

The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in elite jewelry.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Effective Molality

The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.