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Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

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Reaction Ratio

The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in a reaction, maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or masses.



Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Equivalent Weight

An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x 1023 electrons in a redox reaction.
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with 6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

xenon hexafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF6, that melts at 50°C to a yellow liquid, and boils at 75°C.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).


An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive distillation of coal or petroleum.