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An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

pH

Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the H3O+[H+] ion, scale is commonly used over a range 0 to 14.

Heavy Water

Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.

Ideal Gas Law

The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and the absolute temperature.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.