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An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

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The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.


Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a chromatographic column and removes the sample components from the stationary phase.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Haber Process

A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Transition State Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass through high-energy transition states before forming products.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.


Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H