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An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

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Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Bronsted-Lowry Base

A proton acceptor

History of diamonds

Diamond has been known for about 5 thousand years. Historians suggest that it was first discovered in India in river placers. It has long been credited with magical properties, and the largest famous crystals and products from them are shrouded in a halo of mystical legends.

Open Sextet

Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Reducing Agent

The substance that reduces another substance and is oxidized.

Fast Neutron

A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear reaction.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.