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An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

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    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

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Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types.

The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The device is based on a complex process of "tunneling" electrons between the material and the tip of a probe.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Group

A vertical column in the periodic table, also called a family.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Actinides

Elements 89 to 103 (between lawrencium and actinium) on the periodic table. Only the first four have been found in nature in appreciable amounts. The remainder have been produced synthetically.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.