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An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric charge.

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Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Enzyme

A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Titration

A Procedure in which one solution is added to another solution until the chemical reaction between the two solutes is complete, the concentration of one solution is known and that of the other is unknown.

 

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Inner Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the outermost occupied shell in its hybridization.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.

 

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

Dispersed Phase

The solute-like species in a colloid.

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.