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Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

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  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.



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Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.

 

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Iron

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations.

Origin : The name comes from the Anglo-Saxon ‘iren’, and the symbol from the Latin ‘ferrum’, meaning iron.
Description :Iron is an enigma - it rusts easily and yet is the most important of all metals, world production exceeds 700 million tons a year. Small amounts of carbon are added to iron to produce steel and when chromium.
is added to this, the result is non-corroding stainless steel (small amounts of nickel may also be added). Iron is also an essential element for all forms of life. The average human contains about 4 grams, much of which circulates as haemoglobin in the blood, the job of which is to carry oxygen from our lungs to where it is needed. If the diet does not contain 10 milligrams a day, anaemia will eventually develop. Foods such as liver, kidney, molasses, brewer’s yeast, cocoa and liquorice contain a lot of iron.
Atomic No:26 Mass No:56

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.