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Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

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Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Use of diamonds

Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most brilliant and timeless gem.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Adhesive Forces

Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.