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Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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Creating Malachite egg

One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but effective and visual, and as a result we will get something beautiful.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Square Planar Complex

Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners.

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Low Spin Complex

Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex, contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals are occupied in octahedral complexes.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Ampere

Unit of electrical current, one ampere equals one coulomb per second.