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Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

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Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.