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Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

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Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Spectral Line

Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption spectrum, represents the energy difference between two energy levels.

 

Denatured

A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been rendered unfit for human consumption because of the addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-expempt.

 

Hydrate

A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.