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An equation giving the concentration of a reactant remaining after a specified time, has different mathematical form for different orders of reactants.

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Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.