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Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

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Composition Stoichiometry

Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among elements in compounds.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.


Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.


The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.