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Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

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Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Thermal Cracking

Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of a catalyst and in the absence of air.

 

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Primary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

Valence Bond Theory

Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.