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Photoelectric Effect

Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

Solvent

The dispersing medium of a solution.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Mixture

A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Activity of a component of ideal mixture

A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to molar concentration in an ideal solution, equal to partial pressure in an ideal gas mixture, and defined as 1 for pure solids or liquids.

Displacement Reactions

Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.